• Cleaning plant for diesel engines with particle filter with computer-controlled catalyst, AdBlue injection and microparticle filter. The facility for Euro4 and Euro5 can cost approx. € 3000 and provides German certification as Euro6. Photo: Bjarne Eikefjord
    Cleaning plant for diesel engines with particle filter with computer-controlled catalyst, AdBlue injection and microparticle filter. The facility for Euro4 and Euro5 can cost approx. € 3000 and provides German certification as Euro6. Photo: Bjarne Eikefjord
  • AdBlue for diesel engines is injected into the SCR catalyst via the dosing valve in the center of the image and provides SCR purification, called the Selective Catalytic Reduction. Photo: Bjarne Eikefjord
    AdBlue for diesel engines is injected into the SCR catalyst via the dosing valve in the center of the image and provides SCR purification, called the Selective Catalytic Reduction. Photo: Bjarne Eikefjord
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By: Bjarne Eikefjord and Sven Furuly
Caravan and Caravan magazine, No. 3 June 2018

Climate challenges: Technology reduces environmental emissions

Global warming due to greenhouse gases that create greenhouse effect is an existential threat to humanity in the long term. There is broad consensus through several international conventions that CO2 emissions should be reduced and most preferably eliminated. BoCM has looked into what this means for tractors and motorhomes.

Road traffic accounts for 14% of total greenhouse gas emissions. Through technological innovations, improved engine management systems and above all the introduction of catalysts and other cleaning equipment, vehicle manufacturers have been able to reduce CO2 emissions from vehicles significantly over the past three decades. Most of the reductions are due to the fact that the specific fuel consumption (liter per mile) is significantly reduced, despite the fact that the weight of the vehicles has increased.

Internal combustion engines

Gasoline and diesel engines deliver the power of the fuel through combustion in the engines. In one, air and gas gas are compressed by ignition plug. In the diesel engine, air compresses, fuel is injected and self-igniting in the cylinders. The efficiency is different, the diesel engine utilizes a far higher proportion of the energy in the fuel than the petrol engine, which reflects the fact that a petrol car consumes approx. 40% more fuel at a given distance than the same car with diesel engine. The CO2 emissions are also approx. 40% higher from a gasoline engine than a diesel engine, which was the reason why the diesel cars just over a decade ago were prioritized in order to reduce CO2 emissions while reducing fossil fuel consumption. This difference is almost independent of the amount of cleaning equipment used. The diesel engine is thus much "smarter" compared to the climate than the gasoline engine, and the Norwegian CO2 emissions from passenger car traffic have increased in recent years as the diesel field has fallen from 74% to about 20% of new vehicles, due to "dieselgate".

NOX emissions go down

NOx, or nitrogen oxide, is formed during the combustion process, around 5 twice as much in diesel as in petrol engines. NOx contributes to respiratory diseases, formation of gas ozone at ground level and acid rainfall, but is not dust or greenhouse gas such as CO2. Due to the car manufacturer's malfunction with the so-called "dieselgate", NOx emissions have received tremendous attention, and the myths are many. 22. May 2016 published a report on NOx that shows that Norwegian emissions of NOx are on its way down. According to the Gothenburg Protocol, Norway would release a maximum of 156.000 tonnes NOx from 2010. This was achieved in 2013. According to figures from Statistics Norway, Norwegian NOx emissions were actually reduced to 134.000 tonnes in 2015. Of this comes about 20% from road traffic.

AdBlue technology

By now, the latest technology for diesel engines has eliminated NOx emissions by adding something called AdBlue in the exhaust system. AdBlue is manufactured from an unreal solution, which is again made through synthesis of ammonia and CO2 (carbon dioxide). Technical urea can be found in products like shampoo, cosmetics and adhesives. AdBlue additions transform approx. 95% of harmful NOx from diesel fuel to harmless nitrogen and steam. This is stated in a report from the Transport Economics Department, TØI, based on tests at the exhaust gas laboratory in VVT in Finland on behalf of the Swedish Road Administration in 2015. Compared with gasoline engines, emissions are reduced to third parties.

Euro6 requirements

SCR purification, as the process is called (Selective Catalytic Reduction), comes in addition to particulate filters and catalysts. From 2014, technology was used on heavy cars, and from 2016 it was introduced on personal motor-powered engines with Euro6 classification. The new requirements for passenger cars in the EU cycle are by the way at 0,08 g / km. of NOX, while outgoing Euro 5 requirements were at 0,18 g / km. Rolf Hagman, a researcher at Transportøkonomisk institutt (TØI), confirmed in 2015 that Dagsavisen uses SCR technology and AdBlue: "" With hot engine, virtually all NOx is removed, "said Hagman. AdBlue is also manufactured by Norwegian Yara, the world's largest manufacturer of the fabric. The system is currently available only for diesel engines, as with AdBlue, it meets the strictest requirements for Euro6.

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